not just 2, not just 3, but 4 ways people relate to truth

My father once told me there were two types of people in the world:

- truth-tellers
- liars

Later on I learned that there were two other types. One being

- bullshitters

These are people who don't care whether the things they say are true or false. They say things for utility-effect only.

what about the 4th group?

Even today few seem to get that there are also

- unconscious frauds

These are people who care about truth, but whose livelihood depends on telling lies. Trained or self-trained, over time these people suppress their knowledge of some truth, and tell more and more lies.

These frauds are almost always believed, because they believe what they are saying

"It's not a lie if you believe it"

Typically, unconscious frauds run in packs, or professions, and/or have institutional power behind them.

telling these groups apart

Sophisticated people can tell apart liars, bullshitters and truth-tellers just by looking at them talk. But to detect an unconscious fraud requires looking somewhat at the content being talked about. This means reading, or other work, sometimes hard work.


- a praised book about Bullshitters.

- a little-known book about "innocent frauds". I haven't read it, but it sounds like the same group.

please remember

The unconscious frauds are sometimes the way they are because of ego, or habit. This means if -in the process of distinquishing these 4 types of people -you politicize things, you could easily find yourself blind to those who share your political goals.